Nanotechnology is a science field dealing with the deliberate creation and use of particles and structures on a scale of 1 nm to 100 nm (10-9 to 10-7 meters). The nanoworld area is highlighted by a blue bar in the following image. Nanostructures are small enough to apply quantum phenomena.
Cílem nanotechnologií je vytvořit objekt nebo strukturu s novými vlastnostmi, které lze pochopit a využít. Jak na to, se můžete dovědět u nás.
Use of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials
is very extensive, we will meet them today in:
- electronics (storage media, spintronics, bioelectronics, quantum electronics),
- healthcare (targeted transport of medicines, artificial joints, valves, tissue replacement, new generation disinfection solutions, analyzers, protective veils),
mechanical engineering (super-hard surfaces with low friction, self-cleaning non-scratch varnishes, machine tools),
- construction industry (new insulating materials, self-cleaning facade coatings, non-stick tiles),
- chemical industry (nanotubes, nanocomposites, selective catalysis, aerogels, cosmetic creams and varnishes with UV filter),
- textile industry (non-creasing, hydrophobic and non-staining fabrics),
- electrical engineering (high-capacity recording media, photo materials, fuel cells),
- optics (optical filters, lasers and LEDs, photonic crystals and photonic fibres, integrated optics),
- cars (non-wetting surfaces, windscreen filters),
- space industry (catalysts, durable satellite surfaces),
- military (nanosensors, structural elements of space shuttles),
- the environment (biodegradation, removal of impurities, food labelling).
Forecasts of nanotechnology development
The picture shows (Today) our current situation in the technological development of nanotechnologies.
The nanotechnology market in the future
The figure shows the forecast of the nanotechnology-related goods market for 2010–2015, including the share of individual sectors in the total value of goods. Prices estimates in thousands of dollars (1012 = 1 000 000 000 000 $).
Investing in nanotechnology today
Government funding for nanotechnology knowledge development exceeds 11,000,000,000 USD per year worldwide (Cientifica Ltd 2011).
The following graph shows global government investment in nanotechnologies in millions of dollars between 2000 and 2015 (Cientifica Ltd 2011).
Market incorporating nanotechnology
Estimate the development of the market for products containing nanotechnologies in billions of dollars. Source: LUX Research, 2004 an NSF Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020.
A number of nanotechnology jobs in millions (blue bars) and nanotechnology share in the total number of jobs in per cent (orange dots). Source: LUX Research, 2004.
Is nanotechnology a promising field?